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Ponto de Cultura RSS. Cleber Chiquinho [Show as slideshow]. Follow any comments here with the RSS feed for this post. Post a comment or leave a trackback: Ed ancora, ad una analisi attenta e metodicamente serrata, la canzone 'Tegno de folle 'mpresa' rivela al critico accorto una 'costellazione di figure metaforiche e di rispondenze lessicali largamente speculare nei confronti di una solenne apertura descrittiva sulla sposa del Canticum Canticorum'.

E d'altra parte già in Guinizzelli faceva la sua comparsa quella poetica nata attorno all'idea tutta stilnovistica che il poeta dice 'd'Amor lo vero' su cui si incontreranno sia Dante che Cavalcanti ed infine Cino da Pistoia.

Preludio allo scrivere 'ispirato', in cui Gorni ravvisa il nocciolo duro della poetica stilnovistica, è già quel verso guinizzelliano di ammonimento a Bonagiunta in 'Omo ch'è saggio non corre leggero': Dall'insieme coerente di citazioni allusive che l'indagine di Paolazzi mette in luce emerge il nodo cruciale 'di una poetica [guinizzelliana] cresciuta in confronto serrato con il testo sacro ed il suo messaggio'. Fu dunque il poeta bolognese il primo a 'metabolizzare' le fonti bibliche da cui trassero poi ispirazione tematica, lessicale e strutturale sia Dante che Cavalcanti ed a rinnovare il linguaggio poetico attraverso il raffinato riuso dei testi sacri, posti ora al servizio della poesia amorosa.

Paolazzi arriva cosí ad allargare sul terreno della cultura sacra gli spazi di poetica condivisi dal gruppo dei poeti Stilnovisti, allo stesso tempo accreditando questo 'rivoluzionario' processo di rinnovamento, che ebbe straordinari sviluppi nei fiorentini, a Guinizzelli, meritatamente considerato 'padre' e precursore del Dolce Stil Novo.

La parte forse più originale, seppur vi si pervenga a conclusioni in sede critica a volte opinabili o poco convincenti, ha il merito di aver individuato una seconda voce, concomitante a quella biblica, 'metabolizzata' dai poeti stilnovisti, che ad essa fecero costante ricorso per lo sviluppo di una comune elaborazione di teoria e prassi poetica.

Seppur già De Robertis aveva accertato in Cavalcanti e Dante un 'salto culturale' e Favati aveva sottolineato la grande creatività dei due poeti nel loro 'riuso e rilancio di generi e modelli' antichi, Paolazzi va oltre e crede di poter individuare con certezza nell'Ars poetica di Orazio l'altra 'voce' che ha contribuito in maniera determinante a far 'lievitare' l'autoconsapevolezza teorica del gruppo e ad elaborare il nucleo centrale del nuovo codice poetico.

Al manuale oraziano si sarebbero rifatti Dante, Cavalcanti, Cino e Guinizzelli stesso non solo come fonte normativo-interpretativa ma anche come stimolo a tutta una 'catena di invenzioni' poetiche. L'ambizioso progetto di Paolazzi è quello di 'connettere saldamente il corpus poetico degli Stilnovisti con i pronunciamenti oraziani su origine, manifestazione, funzione dei detti poetici' facendo leva su uno sparuto manipolo di versi oraziani e qui sta una delle massime debolezze della sua indagine, peraltro stimolante da cui crede di estrapolare un insieme coerente di indizi testuali di 'spessore alternante'.

Un 'fitto reticolo di spunti orazianií è già individuabile, secondo l'analisi dell'autore, nel proemio di 'Donne ch'avete', di cui si sottolineano gli agganci con la tradizione stoico-epicurea sulla natura del linguaggio poetico come manifestazione adeguata delle passioni dell'animo Ars Poetica ; la funzione psicagogica della poesia Ars Poetica circa la capacità della poesia 'dolce', cioè 'ricca di sentimento' di condurre a suo piacimento il cuore dell'ascoltatore; il principio della 'convenienza' tra materia trattata e stile prescelto dal poeta Ars poetica Quello che sottolinea il Paolazzi, e che costituisce veramente il suo contributo forse più originale ed azzardato?

Questo il teorema critico su cui si appunta l'indagine di Paolazzi: Da questa fondamentale acquisizione critica Paolazzi arriva a ridefinire la questione del 'nodo' nel famoso passo purgatoriale: Tralasciando in questa sede le riprove in sede intertestuale dei nessi ispirativi di Cavalcanti con il codice di poetica oraziano, preme far presenti i risultati della ricerca in merito all'influenza esercitata dal poeta latino sulla poetica guinizzelliana.

Paolazzi, appoggiandosi per l'ennesima volta al passo oraziano , mette in luce il parallelismo tra teoria del 'cor gentil' e teoria oraziana della natura che 'forma dentro'. Le concordanze tematiche si rispecchiano anche nelle ricadute lessicali fe' -anti- natura in Guido e format - natura-prius in Orazio cosí come 'lo cor ch'è fatto da natura' ricalca il 'format enim natura prius nos'.

Questi riscontri parzialmente decontestualizzati sono rinforzati da osservazioni di supporto di 'Madonna il fino amor ched eo vo porto' in cui la fusione di 'natura' e 'amor' dà origine alla 'natura amorosa' del poeta, e questa a sua volta dà il via a tutta una serie di 'azioni strettamente parallele' a quelle compiute dalla 'natura' di Orazio. Assembling the Lyric Self: U of Minnesota P, It was my interest in the relationship between lyric voice and the concept of authorship in the Old English Frauenlieder that attracted me to Olivia Holmes's Assembling the Lyric Self: On this topic it did not disappoint: Holmes does indeed provide a fascinating discussion of the relationship between the author and his fictive "I" that, while remaining specific to the poets under discussion at the level of detail, has wide ramifications for the corpora of the Liederhandschriften of any European vernacular.

Even better, Holmes's careful study of selected manuscripts proved to offer much new information and cogent discussion on two related topics: Holmes frames her study as an argument against the widespread notion that Petrarch invented the "author-ordered, first-person" lyric sequence 3 that presents the poet's literary person via "an aggregate of inferences" 4.

This mistaken assumption, Holmes says, derives from the historical failure of scholarship to pay sufficient attention to manuscript sequencing, prose bridges, and other layout clues. By the simple but rarely chosen expedient of reading Occitan and Italian lyrics in their manuscript contexts, Holmes is able to show that rather than inventing the implied-author biography, Petrarch was rather the heir of a gradually developed tradition.

The story begins, for Holmes, with Uc de Saint Circ, an early thirteenth-century Occitan troubadour who lived most of his adult life in Treviso. He may well have been responsible for much of the flurry of compiling activity occurring in northern Italy during his lifetime, and for the composition of the vidas and razos that accompany the manuscript collections of ostensibly oral lyrics. Following Zumthor, critics have naturally assumed that the purpose of the vidas and razos was to personalize or individualize the lyric "I" on the page, where it is unnaturally divorced from the physical presence of the singer-author troubadour.

In reality, as Holmes demonstrates, these prose additions act as palinodes, "draw[ing] attention to the figure of the poet as a liar or artificer" Counterintuitively focussing on a manuscript that happens to be wholly devoid of prose palinodes as well as of any graphic enhancement, Holmes makes her point about Uc as a self-conscious writer by showing how sequencing alone implies a persona and a life history.

Unlike Uc, who was presumably an oral composer, Guittone d'Arezzo was clearly a writer and "explicitly ordered [his poems] into thematic or narrative cycles" 48 to tell a life story turning on a religious conversion apparently based on Augustine's Confessions. As with Uc's palinodes, however, "the entire collection implicitly undermines Guittone's conversion, since the love poems [. For Holmes, Guittone's creation of a macrotext from a lifetime of lyric production set a precedent for subsequent thirteenth- and fourteenth-century canzonieri.

This fact is shown in Holmes's discussion of Vaticano Latino ms. V , a multi-author anthology embedding many single-author sequences that Holmes concludes are author-ordered, based on her observations of "formal or thematic connectors" Rustico Fillippi, for example, links sonnets into a fixed order by enchaining their rhyme schemes.

Monte Andrea creates fictive tenzoni to connect short, lyric sequences. A long, anonymous corona is linked with, among other devices, the interlocking repetition of key words and motifs.

As Florentine literary culture was thus thriving, Guittone's contemporary, the last Occitan troubadour Guiraut Riquier, was compiling an autobiographical libre. Beginning with a self-conscious rubric alluding to the autograph manuscript, Riquier's libre presents his lyrics in alleged chronological order, each dated and numbered "in order to make them tell a story, to mimic change and motion, [.

The poems are also frequently enchained with the "elaborate metrical schemes" that became possible with written composition and transmission , and even a sequence in the most conventional lyric genre, the pastorella, is given autobiographical weight by the conceit that the knight is Riquier himself, and the two shepherdesses a mother-daughter pair whom he courts in sequence over more than twenty years. At about the same time, a younger contemporary of Guittone and Riquier was expanding many of these lyric-sequence conventions in his Vita nova.

Holmes argues that young Dante Alighieri, taking the Gospel of John as his model, superimposed "a literary vision of reality in which things and events are interpreted as signs," onto the now conventional lyric sequence, with the innovation of the prosimetrum form. Despite these radical departures from received tradition, "Dante's lyric sequence consists of a repertoire of conventional situations and amorous dilemmas" that recalls the anonymous corona of ms.

V, previously discussed The poems are, in fact, so extremely conventional that "[i]t is the prose that does the work of increasing their levels of meaning and of making their allegorical meanings explicit, that is, of making them 'new'" From earlier canzonieri, he took the fiction that the book is a transcription of a live performance.

Olivia Holmes's chief contribution to the study of Italian lyric surely lies in her evidence of a strong continuity of tradition, but she does not conduct her argument without close readings of the text, which will be of interest in their own right. Nor does her argument for continuity in any way detract from the achievements of Dante and Petrarch. While they learned from earlier and contemporary poets and canzonieri, Holmes is always quick to remind us that the quality of their verse and their vision was on a level quite beyond that of their colleagues.

I, for one, appreciate these two giants all the more, now that Holmes has reconstructed the paving of their road by their predecessors. If Assembling the Lyric Self could be said to disappoint in any way, it would be in its surprising omission to note any humor in the poetic corpus it examines so carefully. Holmes's decision to focus exclusively on the love and religious lyrics precludes forays into the comic and satiric poems, of course, but one does wonder from time to time, reading her earnest discussions of apparently thoroughly solemn canzoni, sonnets, tenzoni, and pastorellas, if the love lyrics especially weren't a bit more playful than she would have them.

A study of the witty and whimsical aspects of the same poetic corpus, if conducted with the same high standards as the book under review, would likely discover additional and complementary evidence for self-conscious authorship in Petrarch's predecessors. Le origini della lingua poetica indeuropea. Voce coscienza e transizione neolitica. The work examined here seems to be rara avis these days.

The impression, conveyed already in the title, is confirmed in the "Preface," in which the author firmly champions the legitimacy of overcoming the particularistic approach, dictated by an undue preoccupation with individual methodologies and specific up-to-date contributions, and the necessity of delving in the problems and themes themselves.

The extensive monograph is structured in a "reconstruction of the forms" and a "reconstruction of the values. In the first part, an overview of the early studies on the origins of the Indo-European poetic language is traced back to its origins in the German scholarship of the nineteenth century.

Then the more recent developments, in particular, after the publication of Rüdiger Schmitt's Dichtung und Dichtersprache in indogermanischer Zeit Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, are examined in greater detail, with special emphasis on the positions of five different scholars: The professed impartiality of the scientific approach does not prevent Costa from frankly and clearly expressing his judgment: The second part directly examines and reconsiders the main issue that a scholar has to face nowadays in the light of our present knowledge.

In an effort to define the epistemological setting of comparative linguistics today, the author proposes a "systemic model" modello sistemico which draws from such concepts as Bateson's application of the principle of entropy to a theory of the Mind and Nature, Korzybski's notion of "map" and "territory", and finally on Bohr's complementarity principle.

The historical or rather, pre-historical and proto-historical section that follows, "Le origini indeuropee," focuses on the possible time frame of the Indo-European diaspora: Institute for the Study of Man, , Seemingly abstract and often poised on minute linguistic questions for instance, the analogy between the Greek formula kleos aphthiton, "incorruptible glory," and its Vedic equivalent these studies are a reflection on the meaning of those language forms that shape the world views of Western civilization.

We may add that any such research ultimately aims at a hermeneutic contribution to the understanding of the cultural system that, in this century, has been variously referred to as Welt Heidegger , uncharted territory Wittgenstein , ideology Ferruccio Rossi-Landi , or labyrinth Borges.

To give a tangible example of some of the problems debated in the book, I will focus on an issue that is crucial in any research on the origins and character of the Indo-European poetic language: In a diachronic perspective, on the other hand, a culture which has appeared of paramount importance since the very beginnings of Indo-European studies for its unquestionable antiquity, namely Old Indic, has been ostensibly lacking in written documents until relatively recent times: In other traditions, too, the magic character of script is variously alluded to see, for instance, the reference to the Druids in Caesar's Bellum Gallicum VI: Particularly suggestive, in this respect, is the story of Bellerophontes as told in the Iliad VI: The hero, victim of the treachery of a woman in a situation comparable to the Biblical episode of Joseph and Potiphar's wife , is given a scroll with some "ominous signs" semata lygra , which are meant to cause indirectly his death.

This is the only Homeric passage in which writing is mentioned: If a brief remark can be added to the detailed analysis and beautiful interpretation of this passage by Françoise Bader La langue des dieux, ou l'hermétisme des poètes indo-européens, Pisa: Giardini, , , I would say that writing, placed on the threshold between life and death, has all the ambivalent power of an oracle: A subject closely related to the above topic is the metrical aspect in the Indo-European poetic tradition see, in this regard, the very recent contribution by Morris Halle, "On Stress and Accent in Indo-European," Language 73 []: The issue is often discussed in the context of the possibility, or impossibility, of reconstructing an even partial framework that is common to the different languages, see the debate among Enrico Campanile, Marcello Durante, and Calvert Watkins It is highly significant in this context that in some Indo-European languages, like Sanskrit, Greek, and possibly Latin, the linguistic accent was musical in nature, namely, it was based on variations in pitch, not differences in expiration as in the case of the dynamic accent of modern languages.

The reflection on the musical character of poetry could well lead into the direction of the psychoanalytic investigations on the emotional dimension of language, a venue, however, usually disregarded whence its absence in Costa's book by scholars of Indo-European studies. In view of some very promising beginnings already with Freud's very insightful remarks on the opposite meanings of primitive words , such a gap between linguistic archaeology and psychology seems to be a highly regrettable one.

Among the few exceptions is the masterful work of the not adequately known and recognized Hungarian psychologist and linguist Theodore Thass-Thienemann. His book, The Interpretation of Language 1. Understanding the Symbolic Meaning of Language. Aronson, , now out of print, is a journey into the enchanted silva of multi-lingual etymologies, conducted with the confidence and originality of a Vico, who assimilated Indo-European linguistics as well as twentieth-century philosophy and psychoanalysis.

By way of conclusion, I may note that the very extensive pages! I would simply add that, aside from the number of related works, Costa's work can still be viewed as rara avis for the nearly poetic sensibility of an extremely erudite work, in which the rather frequent literary citations appear as but the surface aspect of a deep empathy of the author with the subject of his research: Metrica e matematica al tempo di Federico II.

In the immortal words of W. Gilbert's Yum-Yum The Mikado , "here's a how-de-do! Lulled into a sense of comforting familiarity by its sober presentation and respectable publisher, the charming miniature on its cover, or the numerous illustrations reproduced from late medieval manuscripts in its first chapter, the literary scholar will scarcely fail to note - it may be with a certain disquiet - the proliferation of figures and statistical tables that begins in the book's opening pages.

For some, disquiet may soon turn to alarm, as the remaining pages fill with geometrical diagrams, mathematical symbols, fractions, equations, sketches of flatfish, sunflowers, and horses, computer-generated images derived from fractals, and more or less grainy photographs of the Apollo Belvedere, sculptures at Chartres Cathedral, and sundry works of Raphael, Duccio, Dürer, Mondrian, and Aristide Maillol - not to mention the Parthenon, the Pyramids, and a singularly unattractive Le Corbusier apartment building in sunny Marseilles.

It all seems to take us a long way indeed from the author's titular preoccupation, the "birth of the sonnet. Which, of course, is precisely the point. Wilhelm Pötters is anxious to make us think about this hackneyed problem of literary history in an entirely new way. In order to do so, he has marshaled an astonishing variety of mainly non-literary evidence in support of a simple but dramatically original argument: The numerical values inherent in the sonnet structure - not only 11 and 14, but also the total number of syllables in a sonnet , 22 and 7 the numerical elements of p in their respective proportional relationships with 11 and 14 , and the ratio 4: This is revolutionary stuff indeed.

Many a scholar has ventured a hypothesis as to the origin of the sonnet, all the way from the form's dependence on Provençal or classical, or even Arabic literary precedent to Ezra Pound's reductive, but not altogether implausible, suggestion that the sonnet simply came into being one day when an incompetent artist found himself faltering in the attempt to compose the opening stanza of a canzone.

No one before Pötters, however, has gone so far outside specifically literary history in pursuit of an answer, or has presented such a wealth of information in support of so provocative a thesis. There is much to be learned from this book about both the history and the theory of mathematics - Pötters is generous with his description and quotation of some remarkably interesting primary texts - and even the most deplorably unmathematical reader will come away not only much better informed but also with a deeper sense of the richness of cultural and intellectual possibility that distinguished the thirteenth century in general and the Frederician court in particular.

That being said, from a strictly literary point of view the book suffers from some serious problems. In essence these are structural: Pötters tells us that 11 and 14 are crucial numbers in medieval mathematical theory, and we believe him. He tells us that squaring the circle and the Golden Section are fascinating topics in mathematics, influential in art and architecture down to the present day, and we believe that too.

Then, instead of clinching his argument by demonstrating the concrete significance of these connections for literary analysis, he contents himself with piling up evidence - much of it see the list above dubiously relevant to the invention of the sonnet or to any other aspect of medieval culture - for points he has already made. Likewise, the book fails to deal with some fairly obvious potential objections to its thesis. Apart from the biographical question, which seems likely to remain unanswerable for lack of hard evidence we remain, that is, entitled to wonder just how much the poets at Frederick's court did actually know, or care, about mathematics , it might be asked why, if 11 and 14, or the ratio 4: It is not long after that the sonetto caudato appears, its extra lines putting an end to the ubiquity of A mere couple of centuries after that, sonnets begin to be written in non-Italian languages, and there goes the need for 11 replaced by the 10 syllables per line of English pentameter or the 12 of the French alexandrin.

As for the 4: Of course, it might be replied that Pötters's concern is with the birth of the sonnet, not with what became of it in later life; but it does seem strange that, if certain numbers and proportions are so universally significant in mathematical culture as to have spilled over into prosody and generated the sonnet form, their significance in the history of poetic practice should thereafter be restricted by features of language and chronology.

Wilhelm Pötters has written a learned and original book that certainly deserves to be taken seriously by scholars of literary history and poetic form. But some of his readers may find themselves wishing for rather fewer pictures, however pretty, and rather more - and more incisive - discussion of literary texts.

Steven Botterill, University of California, Berkeley. Alison Cornish has written an elegant, erudite, and engaging little book. Yet despite its remarkable learnedness and the difficulty of the subject matter, it is simply and lucidly written.

The numerous Latin citations are generally translated into graceful English, with the original text given only in the notes. The book is easily readable, unlike, perhaps, the stars that it describes. Cornish tackles as her subject Dante's invocations of astronomical learning, including some of the most notoriously difficult passages in the Commedia. We Dante scholars are frequently tempted, out of a mixture of laziness and humanist snobbery, to give short shrift to the poem's scientific and technical aspects.

The writings of John Freccero first taught many of us, however, that understanding the science of the age increases, rather than diminishes, the poem's beauty. Cornish shows how astronomy has everything to do with its beauty, but also with its meaning, and how form and content are one inseparable package, by reading the astronomical references contextually, in terms of the narrative or thematic moments in which they appear.

Two basic ideas with which she begins and to which she repeatedly returns are that: The constellations are invitations to virtue, serving to remind us of what we ought to do and requiring us to opt for the good. The volume is divided into an introduction, eight chapters, and a brief conclusion.

The chapters are generally based on the explication of a single astronomical invocation or a short series of related references. Aristotle posited a First Mover who set the cosmos in motion by being desired. The behavior of the material universe is analogous, in the microcosm, to the human appetitive faculties. With each description of the celestial wheels, "the reader is made to stand before the universe [.

Chapter 2 takes on the date of the pilgrim's journey and the apparent discrepancy between Dante's astrology and the "real" positions of the planets on Maundy Thursday , showing how Dante's "false" astronomical description of spring yokes the journey's fictional beginning to Easter and to the anniversary of the creation of the world. Chapter 3 discusses three literary references to farmers as readers of the stars Inferno 20, 24, and 26 which stand as symbolic positive alternatives to antiquity's deluded soothsayers and rash sailors whose excessive curiosity led them to precipitous disaster.

Chapter 4 analyzes the elaborate astronomical periphrase at the opening of Purgatorio 9 which refers to the contemporaneousness of nighttime in Purgatory and dawn in Italy, on the other side of the world, inviting the reader to compare "there" and "here," the corrective afterlife with our present sinful state. In Chapter 5, Cornish moves on to the Paradiso, where the astronomical descriptions generally lose their function as time-markers, to become metaphorical representations of spiritual abstractions.

In Chapter 6, she examines the imaginative exercise, in which the poet asks the reader to participate in Paradiso 13, of reshaping selected stars into a new configuration in order to activate the image of the Trinity in the individual soul. Chapter 7 examines, rather, the relation between the traveler's vision of nine concentric circles wheeling around a fixed point in Canto 28 and the homocentric Aristotelian universe.

The astronomical image focuses on the momentary balance of two planets on the horizon, one rising and one setting, corresponding to the undecided state in which both sets of angels hesitated momentarily before making the single, irrevocable decision that set the universe in motion.

This final discussion brings Cornish neatly back, in the book's conclusion, to her original emphasis on observed celestial phenomena as texts that are open to different personal interpretations, and that demand the reader take a stand, choosing virtue and love.

If this book has a limitation, it is that it gets a little bogged down at times in dry, technical discussions. Despite the admittedly ambiguous nature of some of his imagery, Dante is almost always shown to think rationally, like a scientist or philosopher, and just what distinguishes him from his scholastic contemporaries may not always be adequately explained. But the fault may also lie in this reader's perhaps too-short attention span for issues that obviously fascinated both the poet and his contemporaries.

Cornish's contribution is, without a doubt, an extremely useful and supremely original addition not a small feat in such an overcrowded field! Andrea da Barberino and the Language of Chivalry.

U of Florida P, Although the subject of this interesting study has never quite sunk altogether out of scholarly sight, it is probably safe to say that there will be relatively few readers outside Italy, other than specialists in his period c. In Italy, narratives based on his writings have at least enjoyed a prolonged afterlife in popular culture. Even the specialists, however, have still not found decisive answers to many of the fundamental questions that might be asked about the output of any late medieval author: What are the defining stylistic features of his writing?

What precisely are the relations among the various manuscript witnesses to the dissemination of his works? What are the generic and thematic connections of those works with their literary and cultural matrix? Thanks to Gloria Allaire's lucid and meticulous account of her pioneering work on Andrea's manuscript tradition, we are at last in a position to begin to answer all of these questions, and indeed to come to Andrea's work not only better informed but more sensitive to both its cultural significance and its specifically literary value.

Allaire begins at the most traditional of beginnings with an account of Andrea's "Life and Works" She then undertakes an analysis of "Andrea's Narrative Style" , identifying such key features as a "striving for verisimilitude" 14 , a "chronicle-like texture" 16 , an abiding interest in geography and genealogy, a "varied use of registers, shaped according to the particular narrative needs of a passage" 21 , frequent reference more so than might have been expected in the genre to the Latin classics and the liturgy, characteristic use of particular narrative and rhetorical formulae, and the presence of determinable devices of grammar and syntax such as polysyndeton.

Allaire is careful to acknowledge that several of these "hallmarks" 30 of Andrea's style are shared with many other late medieval authors and texts, and that their use as identifiers must therefore be subject to rigorous control. She is also under no illusions about the potential and potentially vast distance between author and manuscript, admitting, for instance, that the appearance of polysyndeton in a given text may easily have been created by a scribal rather than an authorial preference for, and insertion of, conjunctions Nonetheless, she makes a strong - because cautious - case for the definition of a recognizable style as characteristic of the authentic works of Andrea da Barberino, and, on that basis, sets out in subsequent chapters to determine several still controversial questions of attribution connected with his name.

Here the eponymous case is especially tricky because, codicologically speaking, there is no "there" there: The only available evidence for its contents is therefore a set of rubrics transcribed from the manuscript before its ill-starred embarkation. Allaire examines these minutely, along with other surviving evidence of the manuscript's appearance, and concludes both that "[i]n addition to similarities of plot and characters, the lost Prima Spagna shares specific narrative motifs with the known works of Andrea" 36 , and that there is substantial evidence provided by the rubrics for the presence in the Prima Spagna of lexical items typical of Andrea's authentic works, but rarely if ever found in a control group of tre- and quattrocento Tuscan chivalric texts by other hands.

The next chapter, "The Case for Ansuigi La Seconda Spagna " , likewise begins from the lost Roman manuscript, arguing that the Seconda Spagna it contained is probably identifiable with an extant Storia di Ansuigi, re di Spagna, which in turn can be attributed to Andrea on the basis of lexical and stylistic analysis and comparison similar to those conducted in the previous chapter. Allaire does some admirable philological spadework here, clearing the ground of misconceptions and confusions introduced by earlier generations of scholars, and consistently handling her sometimes evanescent textual material with critical acumen and sound common sense.

She continues to exercise her skills in the following chapters, in which she argues first that the lengthy prose narrative known as the Storie di Rinaldo da Monte Albano is probably Andrea's, and then that the slightly less lengthy Libro di Rambaldo da Risa, occasionally assigned in the past to Andrea, probably is not. A brief conclusion expresses the hope that this book's establishment of more precise definitions of Andrea's style and canon will lead to "more thoughtful and comprehensive critical treatments" of his works which, it might be noted, Allaire herself would surely be very well equipped to provide.

The volume is rounded out by useful appendices that list extant manuscripts of Andrea's texts and supply a diplomatic transcription of a key extract from the proem to one of them. They also analyze the content of the disputed Rambaldo in comparison with that of Andrea's undisputed works, as well as provide thorough notes and bibliography.

In every chapter, Allaire's basic method is to take a fine-tooth comb to the texts themselves, examining lexical and stylistic evidence with minute care, assessing individual texts in the light of a wide range of analogous contemporary material, taking full account of the variants and vagaries of the manuscript tradition, and restraining any impulse to push the ensuing argument beyond the limits of the possible, the likely, or the probable into the treacherous realm of the categorical.

It must be conceded that there are points at which particular claims or applications of method seem open to question - given the nature of the subject, it could scarcely be otherwise.

But Allaire herself is well aware of the limitations inherent in her chosen approach; as a result, the effect of her painstaking accumulation of evidence and her refusal to squeeze that evidence harder than it can bear is, in the end, impressive enough in its own terms. Unless they are prepared to deny the validity of the entire philological method itself which some, of course, will be readers who wish to challenge Allaire's conclusions will have to engage with the material in a fashion as methodologically responsible and as exhaustively detailed as her own, which they will not find easy.

All in all, this book stands as a fine monument to a way of doing things in literary study which has fallen out of fashion in recent years, but whose value is likely to endure long beyond that of more modish forms of literary-critical practice that have taken its place.

By dint of great learning, subtle argument, and sheer hard work with texts, Allaire has been able to clarify confusion, dispel ignorance, and point the way toward deeper and more satisfying readings of a previously under-rated author. It is an achievement that any of us who call ourselves scholars might, and should, envy. The Memoirs and Letters of Italian Political Prisoners from Benvenuto Cellini to Aldo Moro is an authoritative and insightful guide through the fascinating realm of confinement and its representation in literary expression.

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